Native American literature , also called Indian literature or American Indian literature , the traditional oral and written literatures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. These include ancient hieroglyphic and pictographic writings of Middle America as well as an extensive set of folktales, myths , and oral histories that were transmitted for centuries by storytellers and that live on in the language works of many contemporary American Indian writers. For a further discussion of the literature of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American literature ; American literature ; Canadian literature ; Caribbean literature. Folktales have been a part of the social and cultural life of American Indian and Eskimo peoples regardless of whether they were sedentary agriculturists or nomadic hunters. As they gathered around a fire at night, Native Americans could be transported to another world through the talent of a good storyteller. The effect was derived not only from the novelty of the tale itself but also from the imaginative skill of the narrator, who often added gestures and songs and occasionally adapted a particular tale to suit a certain culture. One adaptation frequently used by the storyteller was the repetition of incidents. The description of an incident would be repeated a specific number of times.
Canadian Aboriginals, also known as Native Canadians, the First Nations of A rough map of the major North American indigenous communities described below. Students of the Metlakatla Indian Residential School, B.C. (date unknown).
At the peace conference, the British received the territories of Canada from France and Florida from Spain, opening the Mississippi Valley to westward expansion. During and , the French won a string of victories, defeating in quick succession the young George Washington , Gen. In , Governor Shirley, fearing that the French settlers in Nova Scotia Acadia would side with France in any military confrontation, expelled hundreds of them to other British colonies; many of the exiles suffered cruelly.
The tide turned in because William Pitt, the new British leader, saw the colonial conflicts as the key to building a vast British empire. Borrowing heavily to finance the war, he paid Prussia to fight in Europe and reimbursed the colonies for raising troops in North America. In July , the British won their first great victory at Louisbourg, near the mouth of the St.
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What began as stickball, a native American Indian contest played by tribal warriors for training, recreation and religious reasons, has developed over the years into the interscholastic, professional and international sport of lacrosse. Lacrosse was started by the Native American Indians and was originally known as stickball. The game was initially played in the St. Lawrence Valley area by the Algonquian tribe and they were followed by other tribes in the eastern half of North America, and around the western Great Lakes.
The Native American games were seen as major events, which took place over several days.
1 Therefore Indian and Native American will be used interchangeably. information related to Indians in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. courses, and access to archived copies of the ASAIL’s newsletter dating back to
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In the United States, violence against indigenous women has reached unprecedented levels on tribal lands and in Alaska Native villages. More than 4 in 5 American Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence, and more than 1 in 2 have experienced sexual violence. Alaska Native women continue to suffer the highest rate of forcible sexual assault and have reported rates of domestic violence up to 10 times higher than in the rest of the United States.
Though available data is limited, the number of missing and murdered American Indian and Alaska Native women and the lack of a diligent and adequate federal response is extremely alarming to indigenous women, tribal governments, and communities. On some reservations, indigenous women are murdered at more than ten times the national average. Statistics define the scale of the problem, but do nothing to convey the experience of the epidemic.
To this date, however, both information seekers and information providers are Canada. United States. Mexico and Central America. West Indies. Caribbean Area although Indian Tribes and the adjective form Tribal as well as Native (e.g.
Today Canada is the most multi-cultural country in the world, and the home of immigrants of every ethnic and religious group from every country in the world. The words “Native” or “Indigenous” are also used, and mean the same thing. However, there are many different cultural groups. Each group referred to themselves by a specific name in their own language.
For instance, the Inuit – colloquially know for years as Eskimos – have always referred to themselves as Inuit – the People. Or in the singular as an Inuk – a person. Scientists do not agree on where First Nations people came from, or how they got to North America, but they do know that First Nations people are genetically related to people in parts of Asia. Scientists know that First Nations people have lived in what is now Canada for at least 12, years, because they have found bones and artifacts that go back that far.
Many scientists now believe that some of the First Peoples may have been here for much longer than that. For a long time, scientists believed that the ancestors of all North American First Nations people crossed over on foot to North America from Asia at the end of the last ice age, about 12, years ago. The theory is that nomadic hunting people followed the big animals moose, deer, elk, buffalo for food, and eventually moved south and spread out as the ice sheets melted back.
Then they evolved different cultures to suit different environments.
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Uneducated Pagans. Indeed, spreading Christianity to the benighted peoples of the New World was a prime rationale for European colonization. However, propagating the faith always took place within a broader cultural context peculiar to the nationality of the colonists involved.
More than half of all Native Americans don’t marry other natives. As tribal members continue to intermarry, tribes may not be able to maintain.
The Plains Indian has been one of the most important and pervasive icons in American culture. Imagine him, for example, as a young man on horseback. Almost without effort, the image conjures up full-blown narratives of buffalo hunts and mounted warfare. Make the “he” into a young woman and imagine romantic tragedies of forced marriage and unrequited love. Make the Indian a wizened elder and see if you don’t think of spiritual wonder and almost superhuman ecological communion.
But don’t forget that real people peer up from the depths of such timeless images. And while the images can be easily moved to the Hollywood backlot, those real people are not so easily detached from the Great Plains themselves, for this difficult environment framed ongoing historical transformations in Native political organization, social relations, economy, and culture.
Along with the nomadic bison hunting popularized in the movies, Native Americans engaged in raiding, trading, pastoralism, agriculture, diplomacy, politics, religious innovation and syncretism, warfare, migration, wage labor, lawsuits, lobbying, and gaming. Through these adaptive strategies, the Plains peoples worked to protect and enhance their political power and their ability to sustain themselves economically, and to maintain their cultural distinctiveness.
Canada: First Nations group’s ‘marry out, get out’ rule deemed unconstitutional
The National Museum of the American Indian NMAI has one of the most extensive collections of Native American arts and artifacts in the world—approximately , catalog records , items representing over 12, years of history and more than 1, indigenous cultures throughout the Americas. Ranging from ancient Paleo-Indian points to contemporary fine arts, the collections include works of aesthetic, religious, and historical significance as well as articles produced for everyday use.
Current holdings include all major culture areas of the Western Hemisphere, representing virtually all tribes in the United States, most of those of Canada, and a significant number of cultures from Middle and South America and the Caribbean. Approximately 68 percent of the object collections originate in the United States, with 3. Overall, 55 percent of the collection is archaeological, 43 percent ethnographic, and 2 percent modern and contemporary arts.
These figures are based on catalog numbers, not number of items, where single catalog numbers encompassing dozens of sherds or projectile points would skew percentages toward archaeology.
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We highly encourage you to apply for all the scholarships you are eligible for! In OASIS, students will complete a General Application Profile that can be finished, revised and submitted year-round and that will automatically match students only with the scholarship opportunities they are eligible for, and those that are open and available to receive. Creating a General Application Profile is the first step to completing other scholarship applications that you qualify for.
Because the National Conference will be completely virtual this year, the scholarship will now only cover the registration costs. Anderson Scholarship Donate Now. Advisory Councils Academic Advisory Council.
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A skeleton in Siberia nearly 10, years old has yielded DNA that reveals a striking kinship to living Native Americans , scientists reported on Wednesday. The finding, published in the journal Nature, provides an important new clue to the migrations that first brought people to the Americas. Decades of research by archaeologists and linguists suggests that people first came to the Americas at the end of the last ice age, by 14, years ago.
The route, most experts believe, was a land bridge that connected Alaska and Siberia across what is now the Bering Sea.
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